The various field names of soil is given below. These names are based on etymological history or based on weathering and so on. The definitions of these field names of soil are also given here.
Loam:- Mixture of sand silt and clay approximately in equal proportion.
Varved clay:- It contains alternate thin layers of clay and silt. It is generally a lacustrine deposit.
Loess:- it is a loose deposit of wind blown deposit. It has silt sized particles. It is weakly cemented by calcium carbonate. It is formed in arid and semi-arid regions in nearly vertical banks for loess the permeability is generally more in the vertical direction than that in the horizontal direction.
Bentonite:- it is chemically weathered volcanic Ash. It is highly water absorbent and has high Shrinkage and swelling capacity. Contains high percentage of clay mineral, montmorillonite. Exhibits high degree of shrinkage and swelling.
Marl:- it is stiff Marine calcareous clay of greenish color.
Caliche:- a song which contains gravel sand and silt and the particles of cemented by calcium carbonate.
Dune sand:- it is wind transported soil, containing relatively uniform size of particles of fine to medium sands.
Fill:- it is a man made deposit of soil.
Moorum:– it consists of small pieces of disintegrated rocks.
Drift:- it refers to soil deposit made by glaciers directly or indirectly.
Till:- it is an unstratified deposit formed by melting of a Glacier. It consists of particles of different sizes ranging from boulders to clay it is also called Boulder-clay.
Talus:- it is a colluvial deposit of broken Rock pieces the foot of cliffs or step slopes.
Peat:- it is a highly organic soil fibrous nature and entirely of vegetative matter in varying states of decomposition. It possesses and organic order and is brown to black in colour.
Humus:- it is an organic amorphous earth of topsoil consisting party decomposed vegetative matter it is dark brown in colour.
Muck:- it is a mixture of iron particles of an organic soil and black decomposed organic matter. It is usually found in conditions of imperfect drainage as in so I am so in deposited by overflowing water.
Cumulose soil:- Peat and Muck are called as cumulose soils.